How do employees get motivated? Can remuneration alone boost employee trust towards the organization? What are the factors which help increase employee satisfaction? What are the factors which produced employee dissatisfaction? Or what do people really want from their work environment?
Herzberg’s Motivation Theory model, or Two Factor Theory, says that there are two factors that an organization can adjust to affect motivation in the workplace. In the late 1950s, Herzberg surveyed numerous workers to find out what exact work elements made them feel extremely good or bad about their jobs. The results showed that certain job factors are consistently related to employee job satisfaction, while others can create job dissatisfaction. This theory is also called a dual-factory theory or two-factor theory or the theory of intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation.
One of the most exciting outcomes of Herzberg’s research was the implication that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Herzberg supposed that the right management of hygiene factors could check employee dissatisfaction, but that these aspects could not assist as a foundation of satisfaction or motivation. Good work environment conditions, for instance, will keep employees at a job but won’t make them work harder. But poor working conditions, which are job dissatisfiers, may make employees resign.
The two factors identified by Herzberg are motivators and hygiene factors.
Hygiene factors– Hygiene factors are those job factors that are indispensable for the existence of motivation at the workstation. These do not drive positive satisfaction in the long term. But if these factors are lacking / if these factors are out from the work environment, then they drive to dissatisfaction. In other words, hygiene factors are those factors which have a prominent role to play to hold employee in the workplace, which maintain employee calm and do not make them dissatisfied. These factors are extrinsic to work. Hygiene factors are also called dissatisfiers or maintenance factors as they are essential to avoid dissatisfaction. These factors describe the job environment/scenario. The hygiene factors indicated the physiological needs which the individuals required and expected to be satisfied. Hygiene elements do not exist in the actual job itself but surround the job. Hygiene factors include:
Company policies: These should be nondiscriminatory and clear to every employee. They must also be corresponding to those of competitors. It should include reasonable working hours, dress code, breaks, recreations etc.
Supervision: Supervision must be fair and proper. The worker should be given as much independence as is reasonable.
Relationships: no conflict should arise from the work environment between subordinates and super-ordinates. A well, friendly, and appropriate relationship should exist between peers, superiors, and subordinates.
Work conditions: Tools and the working environment should be safe, fit for purpose, and hygienic. The equipment should be updated and well maintained.
Salary: The pay structure should be balanced and reasonable. It should also be equal with other organizations in the same business.
Status: The organization should uphold the status of all staffs within the organization. Performing meaningful work can deliver a sense of status.
Security: It is imperative that employees feel that their job is secure and they are not at the continuous risk of being laid-off.
Motivational factors- Herzberg claims that the hygiene factors cannot be regarded as motivators. The motivational factors crop positive satisfaction. These are intrinsic factors that produce mental collaboration with the organization. These factors are inherent to work. These factors encourage the employees for superior performance. These factors are called satisfiers. These are factors involved in performing the job. Employees find these factors intrinsically satisfying. The motivators signified the psychological requirements that seemed like an additional benefit. Motivational factors include:
Achievement: A job must give an employee a sense of accomplishment. This will provide a delighted feeling of having done something difficult but useful.
Recognition: A job must provide an employee with approval and appreciation of their successes. This recognition should come from both their chiefs and their peers.
The work itself: The job itself must be stimulating, diverse, and provide enough of a challenge to keep employees interested.
Responsibility: Employees should “own” their work. They should hold themselves accountable for this completion and not feel as though they are being interfered with.
Advancement: The promotion system will keep encouraging employees to perform well.
Growth: The job should give employees the opportunity to acquire new skills. This can happen either on the job or through more proper training.
According to Herzberg, a manager who desires to upturn employee satisfaction needs to focus on the motivating factors or satisfiers. A job with many satisfiers will generally encourage workers, provide job satisfaction, and prompt actual performance. But the absence of job satisfiers doesn’t always drive to dissatisfaction and inefficient performance; instead, a lack of job satisfiers may merely drive to employees doing an adequate job, rather than their best.
There are several criticisms against Hygiene theory, some of them are:
The two-factor theory has ignored contextual variables.
Herzberg supposed a correlation between satisfaction and output. But the research led by Herzberg has emphasized satisfaction and ignored productivity.
The theory’s trustworthiness is unclear. Analysis has to be made by the raters. The raters may spoil the judgments by analyzing the same response in a different manner.
No wide-ranging measure of satisfaction was used. An employee may find his job tolerable despite the element that he may object to or hate part of his job.
The two-factor theory is not free from preconception as it is based on the natural reaction of workers when they are asked the sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work. They will blame dissatisfaction on external factors such as salary structure, company policies and the relationship with peers. Also, the workers will give credit to themselves for the gratification factor at work.
The theory doesn’t cover blue-collar workers. Despite the drawbacks, the research results are widely using in corporate settings. This model emphasizes upon job-enrichment so as to inspire the employees. The job must utilize the employee’s skills and abilities to the maximum. Concentrating on motivational factors can enhance work quality.